The Paleothic Period (c. 25000 BC)
Archaeological evidence suggests that Egypt was inhabited by hunters over 250,000 years ago when the region was a green grassland.
- The Paleolithic period around 25000 BC brought climatic changes which turned Egypt into a desert.
- The inhabitants survived by hunting and fishing and through a primitive form of cultivation.
- Desertification of Egypt was halted by rains which allowed communities of cultivators to settle in Middle Egypt and the
- These farmers grew wheat, flax and wove linen fabrics in addition to tending flocks.
The Badarian Period (c. 10000-6000 BC)
- The first indigenous civilizations in Egypt have been identified in the south of the country through archaeological excavations.
- The Badarian culture is the earliest known developed Egyptian civilization based on farming, hunting and mining.
- Badarian produced fine pottery and carved objects as well as acquiring turquoise and wood through trading.
The Naqada Period (c. 6000-4000 BC)
- The Naqada lived in larger settlements about 4,000 BC and produced decorated pottery and figurines made from clay and ivory which indicate they were a war-like people.
- Naqada artifacts from 3,300BC show further development both in terms of culture and technology.
- Evidence of irrigation systems and more advanced burial sites, as well as the use of alien materials like lapis lazuli,
indicate a cultural diversity and the development of external trading.
Pre-Dynastic Period (c. 4000-3050 BC)
- c.4000 BC -The formative stage of the Ancient civilization, that began centuries before during the Prehistory. The entire culture would remain virtually unchanged for the next 3000 years.
- Throughout most of its pre-dynastic history Egypt encompassed a multiplicity of settlements which gradually became small tribal kingdoms.
- c.3800 BC -Trade within Egypt and sustained contacts with southwest Asia encouraged the development of towns which became political and cult centers.
- c. 3400 BC -These kingdoms evolved into two loosely confederated states: one encompassed the Nile
valley up to the Delta (with the Naqada dominating) with Hierakonpolis as
capital, represented by the deities Seth and White Crown ; the other encompassed
the Delta, with Buto as its capital and represented by the deities Horus and Red Crown.
- c. 3200 BC -Scorpion, a southern Pharaoh, makes preliminary attempts to conquer the northern kingdom.
- c. 3100 BC -The two kingdoms vied for power over all the land of Egypt. This
struggle led to the victory of the south and the unification of the Two Lands in 3100 BC under the command of Menes who is also known as Narmer. This was the beginning of the dynastic period of the Pharaohs.